4 Common Apple Tree Diseases
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Know 4 of The Most Common Diseases in Apple Trees
Apple trees (Malus spp.) And other plants of the rose family such as hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Are susceptible to many diseases. The good news is that these conditions are often preventable, and even when they are not, they often cause cosmetic damage. Large producers cannot tolerate these damages so their fruits must be good to be marketed. The tolerance of small producers is generally higher.
Recognizing the most frequent diseases of the apple is the first step to face the worst cases. However, you can avoid these scenarios by purchasing the right varieties and/or practicing good garden hygiene.
Fungi are at the core of some of the most common diseases that affect apple trees. In any case, for small producers, it is preferable to prevent than to treat the trees after they have fallen ill with fungicide sprays. Since fungi spread from infected plants to healthy plants by airborne spores and thrive in humid conditions, preventive measures should improve soil drainage by providing adequate space and removing diseased plants as soon as they are found...
However, large manufacturers often have to turn to fungicides that differ in efficacy and toxicity. If you decide to pursue a fungicide treatment, contact your district extension first, as spray times can be complicated. Along with good gardening hygiene, like removing leaves in the fall, you can prevent some of these fungal diseases by choosing the right plants.
In the apple rind, the fungus is Venturia inaequalis. You will see the first sign of apple scab in the form of injury to the new leaves of the tree in early mid-spring. The lesion is darker than the color of the leaf; On the lower part of the leaf (light green), the lesions are olive in color, and on the upper part of the leaf (dark green) the lesions are black.
Infected leaves can completely fall off in summer. If the tree can still bear fruit, the apples will also show dark, crisp lesions. Fortunately, apples are still edible, just peel off the skin before eating.
It is easy for the small owner to avoid apple rind, as the cause is simply a lack of observation and poor hygiene. An infestation starts out small and can even go unnoticed. The real problem starts when you let the infected leaves, which fall to the ground at the end of the growing season, hang around all winter.
Venturia inaequalis overwinter in this infected and fallen foliage, using it as a springboard for a spring invasion. Rainy weather provides ideal conditions for this invasion. The fungal spores explode the new leaves and infect them.
Disease resistant crops include:
- Crimson Crisp
- Gold Rush
Podosphaera leucotricha is the fungus responsible for this common apple disease. Even if you have never grown apples, you are probably familiar with this disease because mildew infects popular ornamentals, including garden phlox (Phlox paniculata). Its plant is unlikely to be killed, but it will weaken your strength. It's easy to spot - mildew is, as the name suggests, the whitish powder that coats the leaves of many plants in your garden.
If you have powdery mildew, the cause can be found in last year's garden (even if you haven't seen it). The winter fungus on infected dead leaves. The spores explode on healthy leaves to infect them or are introduced by insects. A heavy storm can also be the cause, as heavy rains can send spores onto the tree's leaves.
As a preventive measure, in addition to cleaning the fallen leaves in autumn, respect the distances indicated on the plant's labels to ensure good air circulation. Also, avoid excessive watering.
Some of the mold resistant species include:
- Gold Rush
Gymnosporangium clavipes is the scientific name for this strange fungus that needs a host plant to attack its apple trees. For example, if I grow flowering quince bushes (Chaenomeles speciosa, another member of the rose family) in your landscape, they can serve as a host. It will spread from them to your apple trees.
Signs of rusting of cedarwood are the presence of rusty spots on the leaves of the tree; The apples themselves can also warp and/or stain. If you grow a type of plant that can serve as a host, you can also look for the sign that the host has the disease: rust galls that germinate rusty orange "horns" in the spring, sending out spores that attack your apples.
Remove host plants to prevent rust. You should also grow the following rust-resistant apple varieties:
- William’s Pride
Phytophthora is a fungal disease that knows the strength of a tree. It can attack various parts of the tree, including the trunk or roots.
If you suspect that your apple tree has Phytophthora disease, run the same test to see if a bush (thuja) is alive or dead. Take a sharp knife and remove a small strip of the outer bark from the log to check the underlying color. Healthy wood is green here; The diseased tree will be orange or brown.
Often the cause of this disease is contamination that may have been caused by the soil that you brought into the property, irrigation water, or even the plant itself (if you didn't buy it from a reputable nursery).
To prevent as well as avoid contamination, take precautionary measures related to humidity, such as fungus prevention (since Phytophthora thrives even in humid conditions). For example, in landscaped landfills or raised beds rather than close to the ground to improve drainage. When shopping, ask for a rootstock from the Geneva series. will have superior strength.
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